According to expert Peter W. Singer, interviewed by Martin Untersinger, “ Ukraine has already won the information war ” on the Internet. The Ukrainian authorities, using the media and social networks, have taken over Russia on the territory ” informative “.
Jean-Jacques Bogui and Christian Agbobli, in their book Information in times of conflict or crisis: from mass media to digital social mediadefine the flow of information in times of conflict or crisis in the age of digital social media and their effects on the actions of political and military authorities as well as that of the population.
Mastery of information has therefore become a key issue in conflict. It can no longer be ignored, it is helping to fundamentally change strategy, politics, economics, human behavior and finally the art of war.
Data is a big challenge in our digital mode
The world has gone digital and technological advances have multiplied the circuits for accessing, processing and distributing data… New technologies are now reaching maturity. In our digital society we use new anglicisms like: “ big data », « Open data », « data mining », « data management “…all these terms have in common” Data which is translated as “given”. They are everywhere, we produce them every day of our lives, with the increasing use of social networks and the internet. This data is transmitted by the smart phoneTablets and are more or less easily accessible for companies, administrations, private individuals and politicians.
We will thus be able to remotely control the devices of our home, our vehicle, connecting to them from our home and outside our home using that smart phone or any other suitable material. This is called the “Internet of Things”.
This phenomenon is now of interest to operational decision-makers (managers, marketers, financiers, politicians, etc.) when it comes to analyzing the immense data potential of all people in real time. To complete the challenge big data “, measures should be taken, including the tools that allow more restrictive processing of data, as well as the analysts of that data. This will only be possible through an awareness of the benefits that “ data enrichment “. The data of the databases are ordered, reorganized, processed by statistical methods or econometric modeling, to knowledge.
What is data?
Data, by definition, is raw information without context, a fact without background. It cannot be exploited as it is. Raw data can take on different aspects: numerical, textual data or a mixture of both, but also tables, graphics etc.
Faced with this multiplication of data, we are led to mobilize sophisticated techniques to process them. In fact, mastering these techniques becomes a strategic issue. The processing of this amount of data plays an essential role in tomorrow’s society, as it has applications in fields as diverse as science, marketing, customer service, sustainable development, transport, health, education and politics.
The results from the data collected upstream represent a great added value. In order for information to be valued, it is important to analyze it and explain it in order to make it understandable. Thus, new methods of automatic data extraction are introduced: for example, the ” data mining ” in which the ” text mining “. They are subject to profound upheavals that affect business, marketing, but also research and politics. With the market launch of networked objects that are gradually being used, the amount of data will increase sharply. Elements of our daily life are already networked: the car , the television, certain household appliances… They are or will be equipped with a chip responsible for collecting and transmitting data to their users via a computer, tablet, etc smartphone… The most important thing is that these objects can also be exchanged with each other!
The media and journalists are no longer the only ones who have effective means of relaying news, just think of all those who are constantly posted on social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat … But this multiplication of claims in each one Genre, from a variety of sources, begs a simple question whose answer is less obvious than it seems: what is information? In the medial sense, the word itself describes facts that are brought to the attention of the general public. But to be considered as such, an “info” must meet at least three criteria.
There are three criteria for Agathe Dahyot: opinion, information, rumor, which can be seen in the figure below.
Figure 1 The three criteria: opinion, information, rumor. According to Agathe Dahyot / Le Monde
The terms “data” and “information” are very often confused. However, their meanings and roles are very different.
What is information?
Data has to go through a process in order to be used and have real value. Strictly speaking, a date is a Entry in the process of change. What will emerge from this transformation process is “theExit » : ie the definitive information.
Information thus corresponds to data collected, classified, organized, linked and interpreted as part of a particular study. Use of the collected data requires: sorting, verifying, processing, analyzing and synthesizing. Through this process, the raw data collected during research is transformed into information. This data processing process provides accessible information for decision making.
Information is a set of data that is contextualized and materialized through a medium to formalize exchanges between individuals or between machines. These media can be printed or digital documents, images, videos, soundtracks, microfilms, informal conversations between individuals…
Transformed data is information
The information is “transformed data”. A piece of information represents “theExit of the analysis process. One or more data will have been analyzed and followed a process that resulted in information. To be truly relevant, the information received must have logical meaning and be reliable. Within a company, reliable and relevant information supports you in decision-making, research, analysis, etc.
The information concept for Anne Mayère, ” it seems that the economic analyzes of information seemed to stop halfway and did not allow us to fully grasp the phenomena at work and the problems related to it “.
According to Henri Maler and Mathias Reymond ” The right to information rests on a single basis: information is a public good that must be accessible to everyone and no sphere of economic, social and political life is excluded. The exercise of this right consists not only in the right to information, but also in the right to information that journalists claim for themselves. “. For Pierre Tourev there are six senses that he defines and comments on his website: Toupie.
The information world turns misinformation into a digital “weapon”!
But we cannot talk about information without talking about misinformation! According to the Council of Europe, disinformation, propaganda and fake news can polarize public opinion, encourage violent extremism and hate speech, and ultimately undermine democracies and reduce trust in their workings.
François-Bernard Huyghe gives a more restrictive definition in The enemy in the digital age : ” Disinformation consists of intentionally spreading false information by making it appear to come from a neutral or friendly source in order to sway an opinion and weaken an opponent “.
2017, The world launches the Decodex, a search engine that allows checking the reliability of information sites. This tool fights the spread of false information from websites that produce or distribute information. Thus, the Decodex highlights: a medium that cites its sources and verifies its information, a website that produces or disseminates false information, an activist website that makes no mention of its political affiliation.
In January 2022, the Bronner Commission publishes the report “Enlightenment in the Digital Age”, presents disinformation on social networks. It offers a synthesis of information disturbances in the digital age and disruption of democratic life “. She makes suggestions in the areas of education, regulation and combating hate broadcasters on the Internet.
The Internet can facilitate the dissemination of incorrect or misleading information to the detriment of the informed exchange of views. Online misinformation is based on constantly evolving techniques.
About the author
Jean-Louis Monino is a researcher at the Montpellier Research in Economics Laboratory and Professor Emeritus at the University of Montpellier. His main research interests are data processing, econometrics, statistics, data mining, forecasting techniques and economic intelligence. He is the head of the information and statistics processing and research team.